What are reserves on a balance sheet
The Balance Sheet WordsAccounting Equation
- Is a useful rule which helps when assembling the balance sheet figures. The rule which is always true is that:
- This means that when preparing a balance sheet there will always be two figures which are the same and we refer to this state as the the balance sheet balancing
- Profitability ratios. used to compare the profitability of one company with another or of one company over time.
- Liquidity ratios, used to compare the liquidity of one company with another or of one company over time.
- Investment ratios, used by potential investors when making investment decisions.
- Efficiency ratios, used to compare company efficiency with others or with itself from one year to another. Accounting ratios are only useful when used to compare:
- one company's results over a period of time.
- one company's results with another company. It is best to compare with the best ,such as a world class company, or to compare with the industry standard for that type of business.
- the company's results with those expected. It is useful to use budgets for this purpose.
Accrual An amount unaccounted for, yet still owed at the year end. The amount needs to be estimated and then added to the expenses deducted from the profit in the Profit and Loss account. The same amount also needs to be added to Trade Creditors in the Current Liabilities section of the Balance sheet Learn more about this Asset An item of value owned by the business Balance Sheet A financial statement that shows what the business is worth. This is a very simple definition as the valuation of a business is a very complex topic. It shows the business assets and liabilities at one point in time and is sometimes referred to as the "snap shot".Bank & Cash Amounts held in the bank and in cash. Found in the Current Assets section of the Balance Sheet. If the amounts are in deficit, then the bank account is said to be an overdraft and will not appear in current assets but will be found in the Current Liabilities section of the balance sheet. Capital Items, usually cash or other assets introduced into the business by the owners. Sometimes referred to as Capital Introduced. For companies this is referred to as share capital and Capital Employed is the term given to the total of:
- Share Capital (which comes in two varieties ordinary and preference)
- Loan capital (which is simply a grand name for long term loans)
- stocks of finished goods or raw materials or partially finished good known as work in progress . This amount is also referred to as closing stock and can be found in the Trading account section of the Profit and loss Account. It is important to remember that Closing stock appears both in the Balance sheet and in the Profit and Loss Account.
- amounts owed to the business from its customers and known as Debtors. Customers come in two varieties:
- Cash customers which pay for goods at the time of sale
- Credit customers which pay for goods at a later date. It is from these sales that debtors arises i.e. amounts owed from customers.
- amounts paid in advance (at the end of the accounting year) of goods and services received and referred to as Prepayments Prepayments are shown as added to debtors.
- cash and bank
- Trade creditors. which is the name we give to amounts owed to suppliers.
- Accruals, which is the name we give to amounts still owed at the year end and not yet recorded in the books of account.
- Proposed items such as Dividends proposed. which means amounts the business promises to pay in the coming year.
- Payable items such as Tax payable which is payable within the coming year.
- Overdraft. which is amounts owed to the bank.
- Short term loans
- Is the measure of wearing out of a fixed asset. All fixed assets are expected to wear out, become less efficient and to get "tired". Depreciation is calculated as the estimate of this measure of wearing out and is a charge in the Profit and loss Account. Accumulated Depreciation is the total depreciation charges to date deducted from the cost of the fixed assets to show Net Book Value in the Balance Sheet learn more about depreciation
- salaries if it is payment for work done by the owner or
- dividends if it is for a share of the profits
- Inherent goodwill, which is supposed to reflect the reputation and other positive characteristics of the business which are all difficult to put a value on. This type of goodwill should not appear on the Balance Sheet
- Purchased goodwill, which is the excess of purchase price over fair value of the net assets of the business acquired by the purchaser.
learn more about goodwill
- Long term loans
- Debentures. which are long term loans secured on the business assets. This means if the business fails to repay back the loan on time the business assets are at risk.
- Cash surplus, which is the difference between receipts and payments.
- Taxable profit, which is the business profit adjusted for tax purposes.
- Accounting profit, which is the difference between:
- Income received or receivable and
- Expenditure paid or payable
within an accounting period Often referred to as NET Profit
- Profits made and not passed on to owners. These are some times known as retained earnings.
- Capital reserves which can not be passed on to owners and represent the perceived increase in valuation of some fixed assets.
The profit and loss account wordsAccounting Period Is the period under examination and usually refers to a year. We therefore refer to a Profit and loss Account for the year ended so and so or a Balance Sheet as at so and so. Accruals or Matching concept Is the reason why net profit made is not the same as the cash surplus generated. This is a critical concept for you to understand. It is a fundamental concept upon which the accounts are prepared. You will learn in your studies that profit is not cash for a number of reasons:
- because of applying the accruals concept to preparation of accounts. This is where we deduct from sales the amounts we have incurred to achieve those sales - WHETHER WE HAVE PAID FOR THEM OR STILL OWE FOR THEM is irrelevant. In other words we count all costs incurred including those still owing to trade creditors at the end of the year. The costs deducted in the accounts will therefore be greater than the actual cash payments made where amounts are still owed at the end of the year. Similarly the sales figure is not made up of cash received from customers but is made up of cash received together with that still to be received.
- because of accounting for depreciation which is a deduction against profits for the measure of wearing out of a fixed asset and therefore does not involve a cash payment
- because of the way we value closing stock which can be by using average unit costs, the last unit costs or the earliest unit costs. None of these methods reflect the actual flow of cash because they are all estimates only. You will learn that this is where we consider FIFO (first in first out) and LIFO (last in first out) valuations of closing stock. learn more about the matching concept
Accruals are amounts unaccounted for yet still owing at the year end. Estimates need to be made and then added to the expenses deducted in the Profit and Loss account. This amount also needs to be added to Trade Creditor s in the Current liabilities section of the Balance Sheet. Prepayments are amounts paid for by the business in advance of goods and services received. These amounts need to be deducted from expenses in the Profit and Loss a ccount and will also appear in the Current Asse t section of the Balance Sheet along with Debtors.Gross Profit Is calculated by deducting Cost of Sales (sometimes referred to as Cost of goods sold) from sales. Cost Of Sales is calculated by taking:
- Opening stock. which is the value of stock which exists at the beginning of the accounting period
- Plus Purchases of goods for resale, made during the accounting period.
One common mistake made by students is to confuse purchases with stocks.Purchases of stocks are dealt with through the purchases account and not through the Opening and closing stocks.
- Less Closing stock. which is the value of stock which exists at the end of the accounting period In other words, it is the value of goods purchased during the year and in stock at the beginning of the year, less those items sold during the year. This is the figure which also appears in the balance sheet as stocks and can be found in the current assets section. learn more about cost of sales
- cost of replacing items when they are sold or disposed of .Known as the Replacement cost or net realizable value
- income expected if items were sold. Known as the Realization cost