How to value donations for taxes
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Verify eligibility. You can deduct a charitable donation on your income taxes only if it is made to a designated 501(c) organization. Donations to groups not so designated are not eligible for tax deductions. IRS Publication 78 (see Resources) is a complete list of designated organizations eligible to receive tax-deductible donations.
Calculate your adjusted gross income. The IRS caps your annual deductions from charitable contributions to 50 percent of your adjusted gross income. It is therefore necessary to calculate this amount before determining the extent of your donations that can be deducted. Adjusted gross income is line 37 of Form 1040.
Distinguish between tax-deductible organizations. The 50 percent cap represents the total amount of donations that can be deducted. Within this limit, no single donation can be deducted in excess of 30 percent of your adjusted gross income if it is made to a certain types of organizations. These groups subject to this additional restriction include nonprofit cemeteries, veterans' organizations, fraternal societies and certain private non-operating foundations. Publication 78 describes whether each tax-deductible charity is subject to this rule.
Adjust for capital gains. Most donations
of property are priced at their market value at the time of donation for tax deduction purposes. The exception to this is property that represents a short-term capital gain. These properties must either be reduced by the amount of the gain, or the gain must be reported as such on Form 1040. Other property, such as stocks, bonds, jewelry, coin or stamp collections, cars or personal furniture, may be subject to long-term capital gains. Such capital property does not need to have its market value reduced or reported as income. However, no single capital asset in this latter category can be deducted in an amount more than 30 percent of your adjusted gross income. If it is given to an organization subject to the 30 percent restriction in the step above, the deduction cannot exceed 20 percent of your adjusted gross income.
Report deductions. If your eligible donations made by cash or check are more than $250, they are reported on line 16 of Schedule A (Form 1040). If you're claiming non-cash deductions of more than $500, this is listed on line 17 and must be accompanied by IRS Form 8283, Noncash Charitable Contributions.Source: ehow.com